~(으)ㄴ/는 반면에 and 대신에 — “On the other hand” and “instead of”

Welcome back, everyone! Today I bring you some intermediate grammar. I feel like it’s been a while since I wrote something for the majority in the middle. Sometimes you want to compare two situations or acknowledge two sides of one thing or issue. In that case, you can use 반면(에). If you want to talk about choosing one thing over another, you can use 대신(에). We’ll look at both of them individually.

~(으)ㄴ/는 반면(에)

This grammar form translates more or less to “on the other hand” in English. You could also translate it as “while”. When used with action verbs in the past tense or descriptive verbs, attach ~(으)ㄴ 반면(에) to the verb root. If you’re dealing with an action verb in present tense, attach ~는 반면(에). You can use this when you want to compare two situations. Let’s check out some examples:

(Present tense descriptive verb) —저는 내성적인 반면 남자 친구는 외향적이에요. (I am introverted, but on the other hand, my boyfriend is extroverted.)

(Past tense action verb) — 세빈 씨는 이미 군대에 갔다온 반면에 승규 씨는 아직도 안 갔어요. (While Sebin has already gone to the army, Seunggyu has not yet gone.)

(Present tense action verb) — 한별 씨는 이번 방학 동안 태국 여행 가는 반면에 아라 씨는 집에만 있을 것 같아요. (While Hanbyeol is going to Thailand this vacation, it seems that Ara will just stay at home.)

We can see that the above examples are comparing two different things. We can also compare two aspects of the same thing:

(Present tense descriptive verb) — 강현 씨는 성격이 좋은 반면에 화를 낼 때 정말 무서워요. (Kanghyeon has a good personality, but on the other hand, he’s really scary when he’s angry.)

(Past tense action verb) —  승진 씨는 외국 여행을 몇 번 간 반면에 내국 여행은 아직도 안 가 봤어요. (While Seungjin has traveled internationally a few times, he still hasn’t traveled within the country.)

(Present tense action verb) — 혜림 씨는 매일 집에서 공부를 열심히 하는 반면 수업 시간 동안 핸드폰 게임만 계속 해요. (While Hyerim studies hard at home every day, she constantly does nothing but play phone games during class.)

대신(에)

If you want to indicate that one thing was chosen over another, this is the grammar you need!  It can be used directly after nouns, or after present tense action verbs in the form ~는 대신에.

(Nouns) — 사과 대신에 오레지를 먹을 거예요. (I will eat oranges instead of apples.)

(Present tense action verb) — 숙제를 하는 대신 게임을 3시간 동안 했어요. (Instead of doing homework, I played games for three hours.)

(Present tense action verb) — 바로 대학교에 가는 대신 제 친구는 1년 동안 휴학해서 여행을 하려고 해요. (My friend intends to take a break for one year and travel instead of going straight to university.)

 

Happy studying~

 

Direct quotations

Sometimes when we’re talking to someone, we need or want to reference what someone else said, or when we want to say that someone thought something. In English, we would just say “X said…” or “X thought…” or something along those lines. How would we quote someone or a thought in Korean? Let’s find out! Continue reading “Direct quotations”

Looks like… -(으)ㄴ가 보다 and -나 보다

This post is sort of a continuation from the previous post on 것 같다. There, we learned that 것 같다 can be used to say that something seems like something else. It can be used to speculate about or give an uncertain opinion on something in the past, present, or future. Today, we will look at a similar structure.

(으)ㄴ가보다 and -나 보다 both mean the same thing; the form is simply different depending on what it they are attached to. This grammar means “looks like” or “seems like” and is used when the speaker has observed something that leads them to make whatever conclusion they have drawn. This is different from 것 같다 in that 것 같다 does not necessarily require the speaker to have observed something to use as the basis of their statement. Let’s learn how to use them.

Continue reading “Looks like… -(으)ㄴ가 보다 and -나 보다”

Seems like… 것 같다

Sometimes we need or want to speak authoritatively on something that we know or believe to be true. However, sometimes we want to express that we are a little uncertain about we’re saying, or we just want to emphasize a little more that it’s coming from our own thoughts or opinions and not actual fact. Also, in Korean, saying something too directly can come across as rude, especially when speaking to your superiors. So how do we soften things up? Today, we’ll look at how to say that X seems or looks like Y.

Continue reading “Seems like… 것 같다”

Noun modifier endings

Today I’ll give you an overview of noun modifier endings. I’m not sure if this is actually the proper term for it, but it’s what my teacher used back in the day!

Noun modifier endings are  actually applied to action verbs and descriptive verbs to change them into forms that can then be used to modify following nouns. More simply, they turn action or descriptive verbs into what we would in English call relative clauses and adjectives respectively.

A relative clause is a clause starting with a relative pronoun, such as “that, who, which, etc,” that describes a noun. You can think of it as a long adjective. Let’s check out some examples in English first:

Continue reading “Noun modifier endings”

What’s the difference?? 대답, 답변, 답장, 답안, and more!

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Today, we’ll look at some different words that seem very similar in translation. In English, all of these could be translated simply as “answer.” So, why are there so many words that all basically mean the same thing? When would we use one over the other? Let’s check out the differences between them.

Continue reading “What’s the difference?? 대답, 답변, 답장, 답안, and more!”

-다가, -아/어다가, -았/었다가, -다가는, -에다가

This has been a much-requested grammar form! -다가 is a really useful grammar point that is used often in speech, so it would be really helpful to learn how to use it well.

I will cover four different “forms” of -다가, each of which has its own meaning(s). The four forms I’ll cover will be -다가, 아/어다가-았/었다가 (-다가 attached to a verb conjugated to past tense), and -다가는. Also, while it’s not the same as the verb endings that use -다가, I’ll explain the particle -에다가 as well.

Continue reading “-다가, -아/어다가, -았/었다가, -다가는, -에다가”