Hello again, everyone! This time we’re going to look at how to form compound subjects, objects, and verbs in Korean. Sometimes we want to indicate that two subjects did something together, or that they had the same action enacted on them. We also might want to say that one or more subjects did multiple actions. We can make compound subjects, objects, and verbs very easily! Using 하고 and -고, you can start making more complex sentences in no time.
Compound subjects and objects
A compound subject in English would look like this:
Taehyung and Mina went to school.
The cat and the dog fought.
My friend and her younger brother are smart.
In these cases, both of the subjects do the action or are in the state of the verb.
Compound objects look like this:
I ate cake and ice cream.
Sohyeon drinks coffee and tea.
Both of the nouns in each sentence are receiving the action of verb.
To connect subjects and objects in Korean, just attach -하고 to the first of the two nouns.
태형 씨하고 미나 씨가 학교에 갔어요.
고양이하고 개가 싸웠어요.
제 친구하고 친구의 남동생이 똑똑해요.
저는 케이크하고 아이스크림을 먹었어요.
소현 씨는 커피하고 차를 마셔요.
To make a compound subject or object with more than two nouns, put -하고 only after the first noun and list the other items with commas in between.
저는 사과하고 배, 바나나, 레몬을 샀어요. (I bought apples, pears, bananas, and lemons.)
We get a compound verb when we combine two or more verbs. In English, this is what it would look like:
We had dinner and saw a movie.
Sungmin made cookies and cleaned the house.
To combine these verbs in Korean, we simply add -고 to the end of the first verb. You should only conjugate the second verb for tense, though in speech you can fairly commonly hear tense markers on the first verb as well.
우리는 저녁을 먹고 영화를 봤어요.
성민 씨는 쿠키를 만들고 집 청소를 했어요.
To combine more than two verbs, attach -고 to the end of each verb but the final verb.
저는 샤워하고 옷을 입고 이를 닦았어요. (I took a shower, got dressed, and brushed my teeth.)
Making compound subjects, objects, and verbs using -하고 and -고 in Korean is easy because these endings do not cause the things to which they attach to undergo any changes. Try making a few sentences of your own!