Welcome back, everyone~ Today I want to look at very useful form that you can use to indicate that someone or something did an action that they might not have initially anticipated or intended. In English, we can say “X ended up Y-ing.” In Korean, we express this with -게 되댜. Let’s take a look!
Back after my short break~ I just want to give you all a quick update on what I’m doing lately before I get into today’s topic. I’m working on the storyboard for my next video, which should go up next week. Sorry for the huge gap since the last video! Also, I’m writing three short articles on teaching reading and writing to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students to be published on another site/blog, so that’s taking up some time. Anyway! I’m back with more beginner grammar, -아/어지다! We can use this one when we want to say that something changed and took on some quality. Let’s check it out.
Welcome to another post! I wanted to get a video up for today, but subtitling is taking longer than I had hoped ㅠㅠ So, the video I had planned for today will be up for Wednesday. In the meanwhile, let’s continue with compound subjects and objects. -(이)랑 and -와/과 function similarly to -하고, which we saw last time. However, the situations in which we use them are a bit different.
Hello again, everyone! This time we’re going to look at how to form compound subjects, objects, and verbs in Korean. Sometimes we want to indicate that two subjects did something together, or that they had the same action enacted on them. We also might want to say that one or more subjects did multiple actions. We can make compound subjects, objects, and verbs very easily! Using 하고 and -고, you can start making more complex sentences in no time.
Compound subjects and objects
A compound subject in English would look like this:
Taehyung and Mina went to school.
The cat and the dog fought.
My friend and her younger brother are smart.
In these cases, both of the subjects do the action or are in the state of the verb.
Compound objects look like this:
I ate cake and ice cream.
Sohyeon drinks coffee and tea.
Both of the nouns in each sentence are receiving the action of verb.
To connect subjects and objects in Korean, just attach -하고 to the first of the two nouns.
태형 씨하고 미나 씨가 학교에 갔어요.
고양이하고 개가 싸웠어요.
제 친구하고 친구의 남동생이 똑똑해요.
저는 케이크하고 아이스크림을 먹었어요.
소현 씨는 커피하고 차를 마셔요.
To make a compound subject or object with more than two nouns, put -하고 only after the first noun and list the other items with commas in between.
저는 사과하고 배, 바나나, 레몬을 샀어요. (I bought apples, pears, bananas, and lemons.)
We get a compound verb when we combine two or more verbs. In English, this is what it would look like:
We had dinner and saw a movie.
Sungmin made cookies and cleaned the house.
To combine these verbs in Korean, we simply add -고 to the end of the first verb. You should only conjugate the second verb for tense, though in speech you can fairly commonly hear tense markers on the first verb as well.
우리는 저녁을 먹고 영화를 봤어요.
성민 씨는 쿠키를 만들고 집 청소를 했어요.
To combine more than two verbs, attach -고 to the end of each verb but the final verb.
저는 샤워하고 옷을 입고 이를 닦았어요. (I took a shower, got dressed, and brushed my teeth.)
Making compound subjects, objects, and verbs using -하고 and -고 in Korean is easy because these endings do not cause the things to which they attach to undergo any changes. Try making a few sentences of your own!
I wrote this post to answer a question that an anon asked! ~처럼 and 같다 do have similar meanings in translation but they function quite differently. How are they similar, and how are they different? Let’s take a look. Continue reading “What’s the difference?? ~처럼 and 같다”
I was asked once if multiple particles can be attached to the same word. The answer to that question? Absolutely! Some particles can double up, but some can’t (or at least don’t very commonly). Especially the plural particle -들 and the “only” particle -만 combine pretty productively with other particles. Here are some examples of particles stacking up:
학생들이 숙제를 냈어요. (The students turned in their homework.)
남자 친구는 저에게만 꽃을 줬어요. (My boyfriend give flowers only to me.)
배만으로 거기에 갈 수 있어요. (You can go there by boat only.)
수강신청은 내일 아침 10시까지만 가능해요. (Course registration is possible only until 10am tomorrow.)
You’ll find more combinations as you encounter more authentic material. They’re out there!
This post was inspired by a question that someone asked on the /r/korean subreddit (I lurk around there sometimes; if you Reddit, please do check out that sub!). The question was why some verbs use -고 있다 and some use -아/어 있다. If you check the question link, you can see my short answer on the original question. Also, I’ve actually gone over these two in the past, in a post about the progressive tense. The purpose of this post is to sort of clarify the difference between the two with a bit more explanation and contrasting examples.
Hello, everyone! A new grammar post has been long overdue on this blog. Apologies for the irregularity of my schedule!
Anyway, today we’ll talk about how to express simple future tense meanings. There are two ways: using the simple present tense, and using the structure -(으)ㄹ 것이다. Let’s dive on in!
Hi, everyone! Last time, we looked at talking about “when” something happened using -(으)ㄹ 때. This time, let’s take a look at how to talk about the time before or after something happened. To do this, we’ll learn -기 전(에) and -(으)ㄴ 후(에) respectively.
Hello, all! Thank you for your patience with my crazy posting schedule lately. I’m back with another grammar post, this time about -(으)ㄹ 때. This is a very common and very useful grammar construct, so if you learn to use it well you’ll be that much closer to becoming a fluent Korean speaker!